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Now the main point of what we are saying is this: We do have such a high priest, who sat down at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in heaven,  and who serves in the sanctuary, the true tabernacle set up by the Lord, not by a mere human being. Hebrews 8:1-2

After His atoning death and resurrection, Jesus ascended into the heavens and is sitting at the right hand of God. He serves in the heavenly tabernacle as our High Priest.

Therefore he is able to save completely those who come to God through him, because he always lives to intercede for them. Hebrews 7:25

Jesus is our eternal mediator and the great high priest who has an unchangeable priesthood.

Every high priest is appointed to offer both gifts and sacrifices, and so it was necessary for this one also to have something to offer. Hebrews 8:3

The gifts and sacrifices of the earthly priests were the bodies and blood of ceremonially clean animals, grain and drink offerings. The Son of God presented a far greater offering of infinite worth – His own body and blood.

If he were on earth, he would not be a priest, for there are already priests who offer the gifts prescribed by the law. They serve at a sanctuary that is a copy and shadow of what is in heaven. This is why Moses was warned when he was about to build the tabernacle: “See to it that you make everything according to the pattern shown you on the mountain.” Hebrews 8:4-5

The Levitical priests served in an earthly sanctuary which was only a copy and shadow of the perfect heavenly tabernacle. When Moses met with the LORD on Mt. Sinai to receive the Torah (the rules and regulations of the Mosaic covenant), he also received specific instructions concerning the measurements and materials used in the construction of the tabernacle, its furnishings, the utensils used for sacrifice, and even the clothing of the Levites and the High Priest.

But in fact the ministry Jesus has received is as superior to theirs as the covenant of which he is mediator is superior to the old one, since the new covenant is established on better promises. Hebrews 8:6

Just as the New Covenant is far superior to the Old Covenant, so is Jesus’ ministry as high priest of the heavenly tabernacle far superior to that of those in the line of Levi who served at the earthly sanctuary.

The Mosaic Covenant was forged with an entire nation. The Mosaic Covenant is a conditional covenant made between God and the nation of Israel at Mount Sinai (Exodus 19-24). It either brought God’s direct blessing for obedience or God’s direct cursing for disobedience upon the nation of Israel. Part of the Mosaic Covenant was the Ten Commandments (Exodus 20) and the rest of the Law, which contained over 613 commands. The pattern of this covenant is very similar to other ancient covenants of that time because it is between a sovereign king (God) and his people or subjects (Israel). At the time of the covenant, God reminded the people of their obligation to be obedient to His law (Exodus 19:5), and the people agreed to the covenant when they said, “All that the Lord has spoken we will do!” (Exodus 19:8). This covenant would serve to set the nation of Israel apart from all other nations as God’s chosen people.

The New Covenant is an unconditional covenant involving God and His people. The key aspect of this covenant is the blessing of salvation. There is provision for the forgiveness of sin. The New Covenant will do the very thing that the Mosaic Covenant was unable to do. The Mosaic Covenant was able only to cover the sins of Israel, but the New Covenant takes them away.

Therefore by the deeds of the law no flesh will be justified in His sight, for by the law is the knowledge of sin. Romans 3:20

The Law of Moses revealed that all people are sinful and in need of a savior. The New Covenant is a covenant confirmed by the blood of the Savior which would pay the price of sin.

Unlike the Old Covenant (Mosaic Covenant), in the New Covenant God’s law is not written on tablets of stone but written upon hearts of flesh by the indwelling of the Holy Spirit.

For whoever shall keep the whole law, and yet stumble in one point, he is guilty of all. James 2:10

The reason Israel failed to keep the Law under the Mosaic Covenant was that the people lacked the power to comply with the righteous standards of God.

“Do not think that I came to destroy the Law or the Prophets. I did not come to destroy but to fulfill.” Matthew 5:17

Only sinless Messiah Yeshua (Jesus) was able to keep the entire Mosaic Law perfectly.

For if there had been nothing wrong with that first covenant, no place would have been sought for another. But God found fault with the people and said:

“The days are coming, declares the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the people of Israel and with the people of Judah. Hebrews 8:7-8

The writer of Hebrews quotes here from Jeremiah 31:31 to initiate his argument that Jesus, the Son of God, who he has already proven was superior to angels, Moses, and the Levitical priesthood, is also the high priest of a new and better covenant. This prophecy concerning the New Covenant was uttered under the inspiration of God over six hundred years before the birth of the Messiah.

It will not be like the covenant I made with their ancestors when I took them by the hand to lead them out of Egypt, because they did not remain faithful to my covenant, and I turned away from them, declares the Lord. Hebrews 8:9

The LORD had delivered the children of Israel out of the bondage in Egypt with a mighty hand. He redeemed them from the land of slavery and from the power of Pharaoh, king of Egypt. Not only did they witness ten plagues that the Egyptians endured, they and their animals were not affected by them. When the Egyptian army pursued them, God miraculously brought them through the Red Sea on dry ground, but drowned their enemies. The LORD had repeatedly demonstrated His power and goodness towards them. At Mount Sinai, the LORD entered in to a covenant relationship with his people.

The Mosaic Covenant was forged with the entire nation of Israel. The Mosaic Covenant is a conditional covenant made between God and the nation of Israel at Mount Sinai (Exodus 19-24). It either brought God’s direct blessing for obedience or God’s direct cursing for disobedience upon the nation of Israel. Part of the Mosaic Covenant was the Ten Commandments (Exodus 20) and the rest of the Law, which contained 613 commands, rules and regulations.

At the time of the covenant, God reminded the people of their obligation to be obedient to His law (Exodus 19:5), and the people agreed to the covenant when they said, “All that the Lord has spoken we will do!” (Exodus 19:8).

When the LORD delivered Israel from slavery, He intended to bring them into the Promised Land, a land flowing with milk and honey. The children of Israel, because of their lack of faith, complained and fought against God almost every step of the way. When Moses was receiving the law on Mount Sinai, they worshipped a golden calf. They complained about being thirsty, about being hungry, about the manna and about the leadership. In fear because of the bad report of ten of the twelve spies sent into Canaan, the people refuse to enter into the Promised Land. So the LORD declared on oath in His anger that that generation of Israelites would never enter His rest.

This is the covenant I will establish with the people of Israel after that time, declares the Lord. I will put my laws in their minds and write them on their hearts. I will be their God, and they will be my people. Hebrews 8:10

Jeremiah prophesied that there would be a “New Covenant” that was unlike the conditional Mosaic Covenant which the children of Israel or anyone else would be able to keep perfectly.

When the hour had come, He sat down, and the twelve apostles with Him. Then He said to them, “With fervent desire I have desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer; for I say to you, I will no longer eat of it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God.” Then He took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, “Take this and divide it among yourselves; for I say to you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes.”And He took bread, gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to them, saying, “This is My body which is given for you; do this in remembrance of Me.”Likewise He also took the cup after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in My blood, which is shed for you. Luke 22:14-20

The New Covenant is an unconditional covenant involving God and His people. The key aspect of this covenant is the blessing of salvation. There is provision for the forgiveness of sin. The New Covenant will do the very thing that the Mosaic Covenant was unable to do. The Mosaic Covenant was able only to cover the sins of Israel, but the New Covenant will take them away.

Therefore by the deeds of the law no flesh will be justified in His sight, for by the law is the knowledge of sin. Romans 3:20

The Law of Moses revealed that all people are sinful and in need of a savior. The New Covenant is a covenant confirmed by the blood of the Savior which would pay the price of sin.

When the day of Pentecost came, they were all together in one place. Suddenly a sound like the blowing of a violent wind came from heaven and filled the whole house where they were sitting. They saw what seemed to be tongues of fire that separated and came to rest on each of them. All of them were filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other tongues as the Spirit enabled them.

Now there were staying in Jerusalem God-fearing Jews from every nation under heaven. When they heard this sound, a crowd came together in bewilderment, because each one heard their own language being spoken. Acts 2:1-6

Unlike the Old Covenant (Mosaic Covenant), in the New Covenant God’s law is not written on tablets of stone but written upon hearts of flesh by the indwelling of the Holy Spirit.

No longer will they teach their neighbor, or say to one another, ‘Know the Lord,’ because they will all know me, from the least of them to the greatest. Hebrews 8:11

During the Millennial reign of Christ prophecies, such as Hebrews 8:11, which have not as yet been fulfilled, will be fulfilled. At that time:

For the earth will be filled with the knowledge of the glory of the LORD as the waters cover the sea. Habakkuk 2:14

They will neither harm nor destroy on all my holy mountain, for the earth will be full of the knowledge of the LORD as the waters cover the sea. Isaiah 11:9

The Son of Man will sit on his glorious throne in Zion at the renewal of all things. The capital of the millennial kingdom (Jerusalem) marks a renewal of the state of the Garden of Eden as it existed as very good before the fall of man. Both the saved remnant of the twelve tribes of Israel, as well as, the survivors from all nations that attacked Jerusalem (Zechariah 14:16) enter the Millennium. All of Israel will dwell in Zion on God’s holy mountain where animals will return to their docile state. Before the fall, the animals did not devour one another. They lived in harmony as herbivores.

The wolf will live with the lamb, the leopard will lie down with the goat, the calf and the lion and the yearling together; and a little child will lead them. Isaiah 11:6

The cow will feed with the bear, their young will lie down together, and the lion will eat straw like the ox. Isaiah 11:7

There will be three classifications of people dwelling on earth during the Millennium. We, the glorified saints, who had been raptured will return to earth with Christ to rule and reign with Him over the nations. The survivors from all the nations that have attacked Jerusalem (Zechariah 14:16) have taken the mark of the beast. They are in their mortal bodies and the subjects of Christ who rules over them with a rod of iron (Psalm 2:9; Revelation 2:27). The twelve tribes of Israel who have survived through the time of Jacob’s Trouble are in their mortal bodies and dwelling in peace on God’s holy mountain (Romans 11:25-26; Ezekiel 20:40).

Up until the time of the flood, the prediluvian patriarchs lived for hundreds and hundreds of years. Adam lived for 930 years. Methuselah who enjoyed the greatest longevity lived for 969 years. No one is recorded to have lived for a full 1,000 years. During the Millennium great longevity will be restored to those on God’s holy mountain.

Never again will there be in it an infant who lives but a few days, or an old man who does not live out his years; he who dies at a hundred will be thought to be a mere youth; he who fails to reach a hundred will be considered accursed. Isaiah 65:20

The 1,000 year reign of Christ marks a time of world peace. All the cities of the world will collapse at the outpouring of the seventh bowl of God’s wrath. During the Millennium, people will return to pastoral living.

For I will forgive their wickedness and will remember their sins no more.” Hebrews 8:12

After the time of “Jacob’s Trouble” (Jeremiah 30:7), when the Lord returns to earth to rescue Israel, all those survivors from the twelve tribes will be saved.

I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery, brothers and sisters, so that you may not be conceited: Israel has experienced a hardening in part until the full number of the Gentiles has come in, and in this way all Israel will be saved.

As it is written: “The deliverer will come from Zion; he will turn godlessness away from Jacob. And this is my covenant with them when I take away their sins.” Romans 11:26-27

Because the survivors from the twelve tribes of Israel were not part of the rapture, and will be saved when the Lord returns with the glorified saints, they will enter into the Millennial Kingdom in their mortal bodies along with the survivors from all the nations who have taken the mark of the beast.

The Israelites will prosper and live in peace for 1,000 years in the Promised Land. People who took the mark will reluctantly bow their knee to Jesus Christ who will rule over them with a rod of iron (Psalm 2:9; Romans 14:11).

By calling this covenant “new,” he has made the first one obsolete; Hebrews 8:13a

In the Old Covenant (Old Testament) instructions for the performance of various types of sacrifices are found in the first seven chapters of the book of Leviticus. There are four main types of animal sacrifice, as well as a grain sacrifice.

These five sacrificial offerings, in their various forms, have one crucial element in common: the burning of some portion in the altar fire. This burning transformed the offering into smoke, which produced a “pleasing aroma.” Also significant is the fact that every animal sacrifice includes some special treatment of the animal’s blood.

The repeated sacrifice of clean animals and applying their blood for the temporary covering of sin has been replaced by Jesus’ one time sacrifice for sins (Hebrews 10:12).

and what is obsolete and outdated will soon disappear. Hebrews 13b

What is considered “soon” in man’s understanding is not necessarily what “soon” means in God’s eyes.

“Look, I am coming soon! My reward is with me, and I will give to each person according to what they have done.” Revelation 22:12

Believers have awaited 2000 years for the “soon” return of Christ.

Beloved, do not let this one thing escape your notice: With the Lord a day is like a thousand years, and a thousand years are like a day. The Lord is not slow to fulfill His promise as some understand slowness, but is patient with you, not wanting anyone to perish, but everyone to come to repentance. 2 Peter 3:8-9

The “soon” disappearance of the Old Covenant will take a few thousand years also.

In my understanding and according to the following verses of Scripture, when the Lord returns and establishes His Kingdom on earth during the time of the Millennium, it will be a theocracy and the temple practices and Festivals of the LORD will be re-established. When the Lord returns, He will rule the nations from Zion seated on His throne in His temple and the nations will go up each year to Jerusalem to worship the King.

Then the survivors from all the nations that have attacked Jerusalem will go up year after year to worship the King, the LORD Almighty, and to celebrate the Festival of Tabernacles. Zechariah 14:16

Since the survivors have taken the “mark of the beast” and are in mortal bodies, for them to be able to worship the King Messiah, they will need a blood sacrifice to temporarily cover their sins or they would die.

From one New Moon to another and from one Sabbath to another, all mankind will come and bow down before me,” says the LORD. Isaiah 66:23

The saints will be ruling and reigning with the Messiah in glorified bodies, while the surviving children of Israel will be living in the expanded Promised Land in their natural bodies. The New Moon and Sabbath observances will be reinstated. Though the Israelites will be saved when the Lord returns and do not need to offer up sacrifices for sin, they will participate in fellowship and thanksgiving offerings.

This is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. I tell you, I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on until the day when I drink it anew with you in My Father’s” kingdom. Matthew 26:28-29

When the Lord instituted the New Covenant, He did it during the Passover Seder. During the course of the celebration, four cups of wine were shared. After the supper, He took the third cup, which was known as the “cup of redemption,” and instituted the New Covenant in His own blood. He did not drink the fourth cup, the cup of acceptance. Instead, Jesus proclaimed He would drink it anew during His millennial reign when all of Israel will have accepted Him as Messiah each year when Passover is observed.

The King of the Jews will reign in Jerusalem seated on His throne in the third temple. Instead of hanging stockings for Santa or hunting for Easter eggs, the weekly Sabbath, monthly New Moon festivals, and annual festivals such as the Passover and the Feast of Tabernacles will be observed.

Then, after the thousand years are over, the Old Covenant will be obsolete and disappear.

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